Indicative Content 
1. Capacitors in AC circuits:
(i) Draw a phasor diagram showing the phase relationship between the current and the voltage.
(ii) Define capacitive reactance.
(iii) Calculate capacitive reactance.
(iv) Sketch a graph of capacitive reactance versus frequency.
(v) Calculate true power and reactive power.
(vi) Describe some applications of a capacitor (AC coupling, power line decoupling, bypassing

2. Inductors:
(i) Describe the basic construction and characteristics of an inductor,
(ii) Show how an inductor stores energy.
(iii) Calculate the inductance of a coil (L = N2A/l).
(iv) Use a lumped model to indicate the winding resistance.
(v) Measure the inductance of an inductor using an inductance meter.
(vi) Draw the symbol for a fixed, variable, air core, iron core and ferrite core inductor.
(vii) Calculate the total inductance when inductors are connected in series.
(viii) Calculate the total inductance when inductors are connected in parallel.

3. Inductors in DC circuits:
(i) Describe the energising and deenergising of an inductor.
(ii) Define RL time constant.
(iii) Describe induced voltage.
(iv) Apply the exponential equations for the current and voltage when energising and deenergising an inductor.

4. Inductors in AC circuits:
(i) Draw a phasor diagram showing the phase relationship between the current and the voltage.
(ii) Define inductive reactance.
(iii) Calculate inductive reactance.
(iv) Sketch a graph of inductive reactance versus frequency.
(v) Calculate true power and reactive power.
(vi) Calculate the Q factor.
(vii) Describe the operation of a RF choke.

5. Series RC and RL circuits:
(i) Express the voltages and current as phasor quantities.
(ii) Define impedance.
(iii) Express capacitive reactance in complex form.
(iv) Express total impedance in complex form.
(v) Draw an impedance triangle.
(vi) Calculate impedance magnitude and phase.
(vii) Calculate the power factor.

6. Parallel RC and RL circuits:
(i) Express the voltage and currents as phasor quantities.
(ii) Express total impedance in complex form.
(iii) Draw an impedance triangle.
(iv) Define conductance and admittance.

7. RC and RL filters:
(i) Explain the operation of a low pass filter.
(ii) Explain the operation of a high pass filter.
(iii) Calculate the cut off frequency.
(iv) Define the –3dB point, roll off rate, and the bandwidth.
(v) Use an oscilloscope to plot the phase difference between input and output.
(vi) Use loglinear graph paper to plot the frequency response.
(vii) State where such filters may be used.

8. Series and parallel RCL circuits:
(i) Express the voltages and current as phasor quantities.
(ii) Calculate the total reactance.
(iii) Calculate the phase angle.
(iv) Define resonance.
(v) Calculate the resonant frequency.
(vi) Plot impedance versus frequency.
(vii) Plot phase angle versus frequency.
(viii) Define Q factor.

9. Filter response
(i) Define a decibel.
(ii) Describe the operation of a band pass filter.
(iii) Explain the operation of a series resonant band pass filter.
(iv) Explain the operation of a parallel resonant band pass filter.
(v) Describe the operation of a band stop filter.
(vi) Explain the operation of a series resonant band stop filter.
(vii) Explain the operation of a parallel resonant band stop filter.
(viii) Calculate the bandwidth for each type of filter.
(ix) Define selectivity.
(x) List applications where such filters may be used

10. Radio wave propagation:
(i) List the frequency bands for HF, VHF UHF and SHF communication systems.
(ii) Sketch the layers of the ionosphere.
(iii) Describe the refraction of an electromagnetic wave as it travels through the ionosphere.
(iv) Describe ground wave, sky wave and space wave propagation.
(v) Define critical frequency, maximum usable frequency and skip distance.
(vi) Define general fading and selective fading.

11. Amplitude Modulation:
(i) Describe the principles of amplitude modulation.
(ii) Write an equation for a sinusoidally modulated wave.
(iii) Given the instantaneous wave equations for the carrier and the modulating signal
(iv) Sketch a modulated wave in the time domain.
(v) Sketch a modulated wave in the frequency domain.
(vi) Calculate the modulation index.
(vii) Calculate the power in the carrier and side frequency components.
(viii) Calculate the bandwidth.
(ix) Draw a block diagram of a dsbsc modulator.
(x) Draw a block diagram of an ssbsc modulator.
(xi) Contrast dsb, dsbsc and ssbsc.
(xii) Describe the operation of a diode detector.

12. Frequency Modulation:
(i) Describe the principles of frequency modulation.
(ii) Define frequency deviation.
(iii) Define modulator sensitivity, modulation index and deviation ratio.
(iv) Give the instantaneous wave equations for the carrier and the modulating signal:
(v) Sketch a modulated wave in the time domain.
(vi) Sketch a modulated wave in the frequency domain.
(vii) Calculate the modulation index.
(viii) Calculate the power in the carrier and side frequencies (using Bessel tables).
(ix) Calculate the bandwidth.
(x) Explain the relationship between the noise at the output of a FM system and the rated system deviation.
(xi) Describe the principles of preemphasis and deemphasis.

13. Superheterodyne radio receiver:
(i) Draw a block diagram of a superheterodyne radio receiver.
(ii) Describe the function of each block.
(iii) Describe ganging and tracking.
(iv) Describe the purpose of automatic gain control.
(v) Explain why the LO frequency is higher than the IF frequency.
(vi) Define selectivity and adjacent channel ratio.
(vii) Define sensitivity and describe how it is measured.

14. Interference signals:
(i) Define the following interference signals: cochannel, image channel, adjacent channel and IF breakthrough.
(ii) Describe where and how each of these interference signals can be minimised.
(iii) Define image channel response ratio.

15. Analogue communication systems:
(i) Contrast AM and FM under the headings.
Complexity.
Spectrum efficiency.
Electromagnetic interference.
Fidelity of the received audio signal
