Module Title:  Electrical Fundamentals 
Language of Instruction:  English 
Module Delivered In 
No Programmes

Teaching & Learning Strategies: 
Teaching will be conducted using lectures, tutorials and practicals.
The Institute MLE will be used to evaluate the studentsâ€™ understanding of the basic concepts during each section, using multiple choice questions.
At the end of each section, selftest question sheets will be issued to the students.
The practical sessions will be used to back up the theory.

Module Aim: 
The aim of this module is to give students an understanding of the principles of electric circuits, electric motors and generators 
Learning Outcomes 
On successful completion of this module the learner should be able to: 
LO1 
Describe the basic measurement units and their prefixes, used in electrical engineering 
LO2 
Perform calculations to permit the analysis of an electrical circuit (AC/DC). 
LO3 
Build and test a circuit in a laboratory environment 
LO4 
Describe how electricity is generated 
LO5 
Describe how AC and DC motors operate 
Prerequisite learning 
Module Recommendations
This is prior learning (or a practical skill) that is recommended before enrolment in this module.

No recommendations listed 
Incompatible Modules
These are modules which have learning outcomes that are too similar to the learning outcomes of this module. 
No incompatible modules listed 
Corequisite Modules

No Corequisite modules listed 
Requirements
This is prior learning (or a practical skill) that is mandatory before enrolment in this module is allowed. 
No requirements listed 
Module Content & Assessment
Indicative Content 
Electron Theory
Structure and distribution of electrical charges within: atoms, molecules, ions, compounds; Molecular structure of conductors, semiconductors and insulators

Static Electricity and Conduction
Static electricity and distribution of electrostatic charges; Electrostatic laws of attraction and repulsion; Units of charge, Coulomb's Law; Conduction of electricity in solids, liquids, gases and a vacuum.

Electrical Terminology
The following terms, their units and factors affecting them: potential difference, electromotive force, voltage, current, resistance, conductance, charge, conventional current flow, electron flow

Generation of Electricity
Production of electricity by the following methods: light, heat, friction, pressure, chemical action, magnetism and motion.

DC Sources of Electricity
Construction and basic chemical action of: primary cells, secondary cells, lead acid cells, nickel cadmium cells, other alkaline cells; Cells connected in series and parallel; Internal resistance and its effect on a battery; Construction, materials and operation of thermocouples; Operation of photocells.

DC Circuits
Ohms Law, Kirchoff's Voltage and Current Laws; Calculations using the above laws to find resistance, voltage and current; Significance of the internal resistance of a supply.

Resistance/Resistor
Resistance and affecting factors; Specific resistance; Resistor colour code, values and tolerances, preferred values, wattage ratings; Resistors in series and parallel; Calculation of total resistance using series, parallel and series parallel combinations; Operation and use of potentiometers and rheostats; Operation of Wheatstone Bridge.
Positive and negative temperature coefficient conductance; Fixed resistors, stability, tolerance and limitations, methods of construction; Variable resistors, thermistors, voltage dependent resistors; Construction of potentiometers and rheostats; Construction of Wheatstone Bridge;

Power
Power, work and energy (kinetic and potential); Dissipation of power by a resistor; Power formula; Calculations involving power, work and energy.

Capacitance/Capacitor
Operation and function of a capacitor; Factors affecting capacitance area of plates, distance between plates, number of plates, dielectric and dielectric constant, working voltage, voltage rating; Capacitor types, construction and function; Capacitor colour coding; Calculations of capacitance and voltage in series and parallel circuits; Exponential charge and discharge of a capacitor, time constants; Testing of capacitors.

Magnetism
Theory of magnetism; Properties of a magnet; Action of a magnet suspended in the Earth's magnetic field; Magnetisation and demagnetisation; Magnetic shielding; Various types of magnetic material; Electromagnets construction and principles of operation; Hand clasp rules to determine: magnetic field around current carrying conductor.
Magnetomotive force, field strength, magnetic flux density, permeability, hysteresis loop, retentivity, coercive force reluctance, saturation point, eddy currents; Precautions for care and storage of magnets.

Inductance/Inductor
Faraday's Law; Action of inducing a voltage in a conductor moving in a magnetic field; Induction principles; Effects of the following on the magnitude of an induced voltage: magnetic field strength, rate of change of flux, number of conductor turns; Mutual induction; The effect the rate of change of primary current and mutual inductance has on induced voltage; Factors affecting mutual inductance: number of turns in coil, physical size of coil, permeability of coil, position of coils with respect to each other; Lenz's Law and polarity determining rules; Back emf, self induction; Saturation point; Principle uses of inductors

DC Motor/Generator Theory
Basic motor and generator theory; Construction and purpose of components in DC generator; Operation of, and factors affecting output and direction of current flow in DC generators; Operation of, and factors affecting output power, torque, speed and direction of rotation of DC motors; Series wound, shunt wound and compound motors; Starter Generator construction.

AC Theory
Sinusoidal waveform: phase, period, frequency, cycle; Instantaneous, average, root mean square, peak, peak to peak current values and calculations of these values, in relation to voltage, current and power Triangular/Square waves; Single/3 phase principles.

Resistive (R), Capacitive (C) and Inductive (L) Circuits
Phase relationship of voltage and current in L, C and R circuits, parallel, series and series parallel; Power dissipation in L, C and R circuits; Impedance, phase angle, power factor and current calculations; True power, apparent power and reactive power calculations.

Transformers
Transformer construction principles and operation; Transformer losses and methods for overcoming them; Transformer action under load and noload conditions; Power transfer, efficiency, polarity markings; Calculation of line and phase voltages and currents; Calculation of power in a three phase system; Primary and Secondary current, voltage, turns ratio, power, efficiency; Auto transformers.

Filters
Operation, application and uses of the following filters: low pass, high pass, band pass, band stop.

AC Generators
Rotation of loop in a magnetic field and waveform produced; Operation and construction of revolving armature and revolving field type AC generators; Single phase, two phase and three phase alternators; Three phase star and delta connections advantages and uses; Permanent Magnet Generators.

AC Motors
Construction, principles of operation and characteristics of: AC synchronous and induction motors both single and polyphase; Methods of speed control and direction of rotation; Methods of producing a rotating field: capacitor, inductor, shaded or split pole.

Assessment Breakdown  % 
Continuous Assessment  10.00% 
Practical  20.00% 
End of Module Formal Examination  70.00% 
Special Regulation 
It is mandatory that learners successfully complete the practical assessment. 
Continuous Assessment 
Assessment Type 
Assessment Description 
Outcome addressed 
% of total 
Assessment Date 
Examination 
Learners will engage in at least 1 formative task within the first 6 weeks and at least 2 forms of summative assessment shall be used in the module. 
1,2,4,5 
10.00 
Week 6 
Practical 
Assessment Type 
Assessment Description 
Outcome addressed 
% of total 
Assessment Date 
Practical/Skills Evaluation 
Practical Assignments: Learners will undertake a series of practical tasks in order to complete a Manual of laboratory reports. Practical tests: Learners will complete practical tasks for summative assessment. 
2,3 
20.00 
Every Week 
End of Module Formal Examination 
Assessment Type 
Assessment Description 
Outcome addressed 
% of total 
Assessment Date 
Formal Exam 
No Description 
1,2,4,5 
70.00 
EndofSemester 
ITCarlow reserves the right to alter the nature and timings of assessment
Module Workload
Workload: Full Time 
Workload Type 
Frequency 
Average Weekly Learner Workload 
Lecture 
Every Week 
3.00 
Practicals 
Every Week 
3.00 
Tutorial 
Every Week 
1.00 
Independent Learning 
Every Week 
4.00 
Total Hours 
11.00 
